How does it affect payments made at my physical outlet?

Strong authentication means that cardholders will have to identify themselves to their card's issuing institution by using at least two authentication factors when they make certain electronic payments. Thus, the issuing institution will ask the cardholder for two of the following three types of authentication factors or identification security elements:

  • Knowledge: something they know. For example, the card's PIN.
  • Possession: something they own. For example, the payment card itself.
  • Inherence: something that "is". For example, biometric elements like facial recognition or fingerprints.


The change has not been so radical in this sector, seeing as card transactions with chips (possession factor) and PIN (knowledge factor) have been widely implemented. What cardholders must have surely noticed when making purchases is that the terminal tends to ask them to enter their PIN more often, even for amounts below €20.


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